Bluetooth Tutorial

This Bluetooth tutorial covers basics of bluetooth system,bluetooth technical specifications or features and provides link to bluetooth physical layer,bluetooth MAC layer,bluetooth protocol stack,frequency allocations and bluetooth power classes.

Now-a-days bluetooth has become part of our lives due to its immense applications from audio devices which include headsets and mobile phones,home stereos,MP3 players, laptop,desktop,tablets and more. With bluetooth one can transfer data(meeting schedules,phone numbers), audio,graphic images and video from one device to the other provided they are bluetooth compliant. IEEE 802.15.1 standard describes detailed bluetooth specifications

Bluetooth Network

Bluetooth Network Toplogies

Bluetooth network consists of many bluetooth users. There are two types of network topologies in bluetooth viz. Piconet and scatternet. Piconet is formed by one master and one slave as well as one master and multiple slaves. There will be maximum 7 active slaves in the piconet. Hence there will be about 8 maximum devices communicating in a small network referred as piconet. Slaves can only transmit when they have been requested by the master bluetooth device. There will be about 255 slaves in parking state. Active slaves are polled by the master for transmission. Each station will get 8 bit parked address. Total 255 parked slaves are possible in one piconet. The parked station can join in just 2 ms. All the other stations can join in more time. About 10 such piconets exist in the bluetooth radio coverage area.

Combinations of multiple piconets is known as scatternet. A device can participate in multiple piconets. It will timeshare and need to be synchronized with the master of current piconet.

It supports data rate based on different versions from 720 kbps to about 24 Mbps. It will have distance coverage to about 1 to 100 meters based on power class supported on bluetooth devices.

Bluetooth technical specifications

Following are the technical features of bluetooth technology.

Specification feature supported
RF Frequency 2.4GHz,READ MORE
Transmit power 100 mW(Max.) 1mW(Min.),READ MORE
Data rate About 1Mbps
Distance 100 meter(max.), 1 meter(min.)
RF Bandwidth 220 KHz to about 1MHz
Modulation type Gaussian FSK (GFSK)
Number of RF carriers 79(max.), 23(min.)
Topology upto 7 links in a star configuration
hopping rate 1600 hops per second
Access type FH-TDD-TDMA

Bluetooth Applications

Following are few of the many bluetooth applications:
•  One can receive and make call using bluetooth compliant wireless headset.
•  Operate computer using mouse/keyboard and take print outs wirelessly eliminating cables.
•  Home automation

BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) Links

BLE Protocol Stack BLE connection establishment procedure

Bluetooth v4.2 versus v5.0 >>
Bluetooth v5.0 versus v5.1 >>
BLE states and state diagram >>
BLE advertising and data channels >>
BLE protocol stack architecture >>
BLE connection process >>
BLE advertising and data packet formats >>

Similar posts on Bluetooth technology

Main Bluetooth tutorial page  Frequency  PHY Layer  MAC layer  Stack  Power classes  Security  products  versions 

IoT Wireless Technologies

WLAN    ➤THREAD    ➤EnOcean    ➤LoRa    ➤SIGFOX    ➤WHDI   
Zigbee   ➤6LoWPAN   ➤Zigbee RF4CE   ➤Z-Wave   ➤NFC   ➤RFID   ➤INSTEON