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RF and Wireless tutorials

This page covers RF and wireless tutorials.It covers tutorials on topics such as cellular communication, WLAN (11ac, 11ad) , wimax, bluetooth, zigbee, zwave, LTE, DSP, GSM, GPRS, GPS, UMTS, CDMA, UWB, RFID, radar, VSAT, satellite, wlan, waveguide, antenna, femtocell, test and measurements, IoT etc.

The tutorials section covers basics and advanced topics on the RF, Wireless and cellular communication domain. The contents of these wireless tutorials are useful for both beginners and experts in the domain.

Wireless Tutorials


Cellular communication tutorial-This tutorial covers cellular system architecture, cellular coverage expansion techniques, , access techniques (FDMA, TDMA, CDMA), handover concept in cellular communication and more. Read more


AMPS tutorial-This AMPS Tutorial covers AMPS basics,AMPS frequency spectrum,AMPS system specifications,AMPS frame structure and AMPS call setup procedure. Read more


CDPD tutorial-covering CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data) features, CDPD network architecture, CDPD advantages and disadvantages. Read more


DECT tutorial-This DECT Tutorial covers DECT system basics, DECT system specifications, DECT frame structure and DECT protocol stack.
Refer DECT tutorial➤ and DECT ULE tutorial➤.


This zigbee tutorial describes everything you would like to know about Zigbee protocol stack. Now-a-days zigbee is becoming very popular for low data rate wireless applications. Zigbee devices are used in smart energy, medical and in home automation. In smart energy applications zigbee products are used to monitor and control use of energy and water, which helps consumers save energy and water and save money too. In medical field it is used to connect unlimited number of health monitoring devices and many more. In home automation it controls domestic lighting, such as switches, dimmers, occupancy sensors and load controllers. It has two bands of operation 868/915MHz and 2450MHz. 868/915 band provides about 20-40Kb/s and 2450MHz band provides about 250 kb/s data rates. In addition to this uses zigbee end devices can go to sleep mode which saves battery consumption and it also takes care of security of the information owing to security layer. Read more


Z-wave Tutorial-This page of tutorials section covers z-wave tutorial describing features, z-wave frequency bands,z-wave network, z-wave frame, z-wave protocol stack, z-wave physical layer, z-wave security, z-wave MAC layer basics. Read more


GSM Tutorial-This GSM tutorial covers GSM basics,GSM network architecture,network elements,GSM system specifications,GSM frame structure,GSM physical layer or speech processing and network entry. Read more


Muticarrier CDMA tutorial provides description of multicarrier CDMA and multicarrier modulation technique such as OFDM. It provides MC-CDMA technique and its transmitter and receiver model and comparison with DS-CDMA. It covers merits and demerits of one technology over the other. Read more


CDMA Tutorial-This CDMA tutorial covers CDMA basics,PN sequence codes,Walsh codes,CDMA Physical layer for Mobile and Base Station. Read more


SCADA Tutorial-This SCADA system tutorial covers SCADA basics,SCADA applications,working of SCADA system,SCADA equipment categories and SCADA manufacturers. Read more


GSM Mobile Measurements Tutorial-This GSM measurements tutorial covers measurement performed by mobile station(UE) in idle and connected mode. It also covers conformance level measurements of GSM mobile. Read more

GSM RF Planning-wireless tutorial

GSM Radio Frequency Planning Tutorial-This covers GSM radio frequency bands vs ARFCN,channel number,radio frequency planning, frequency re-use to efficiently use GSM RF spectrum and frequency allocation to GSM channels. Read more


WiMAX Tutorial-This wimax tutorial covers what is wimax,wimax standards,wimax terminology,wimax physical layer,wimax MAC layer,802.16m,fixed wimax versus mobile wimax,wiBro versus mobile wimax,Wimax Base station and subscriber station suppliers. Read more


Wireless LAN Tutorial-This wireless LAN tutorial covers what is wireless lan or WLAN, wlan standards, 11a physical layer, 11b physical layer,11n physical layer,wlan-11ac,difference between 802.11 standards and wlan router suppliers. Read more


HIPERLAN Tutorial-covers HIPERLAN basics and types viz. HIPERLAN/1,HIPERLAN/2. It mentions HIPERLAN/2 frame structure and protocol stack. Read more


IEEE 802.11p Tutorial-covers 802.11p features, frequency spectrum, 802.11p protocol stack covering physical layer and mac layer. 802.11p is also known as WAVE or DSRC. Read more


Bluetooth Tutorial-This tutorial covers basics of bluetooth system, bluetooth technical specifications or features and provides link to bluetooth physical layer, bluetooth MAC layer, bluetooth protocol stack, frequency allocations and bluetooth power classes.
Read more
Also refer Bluetooth Low Energy.


ISDN Tutorial-This page on ISDN tutorial covers ISDN types, ISDN architecture and more.
Read more


ATM-Asynchronous Transfer Mode Tutorial-This page on ATM tutorial covers ATM cell, ATM addressing formats, ATM network architecture, network interfaces, ATM Protocol Stack, ATM services etc.
Read more


TD-SCDMA Tutorial-This tutorial covers TD-SCDMA basics, TD-SCDMA frame structure and provides comparison with WCDMA counterpart.
Read more


WBAN IEEE 802.15.6 Tutorial-This tutorial covers Wireless Body Area Network(WBAN) basics as per IEEE 802.15.6.WBAN frequency bands, frame structure, modulation coding rates, PHY, MAC, security layer are covered.
Read more


Transfer Jet Physical Layer-This page covers basic features of TransferJet physical layer and mention TransferJet PHY transmitter block diagram.
Read more


WLAN 802.11ac Tutorial-This WLAN tutorial covers covers 11ac features, 802.11ac frame format, 802.11ac physical layer, 802.11ac MAC layer, 802.11ac beamforming, spectral mask, data rates and 802.11ac radio network planning, Read More.

WLAN 802.11ad Tutorial-This WLAN tutorial covers basic 11ad features, 802.11ad channels, 802.11ad spectrum mask, 802.11ad modulation coding rates, 802.11ad frame types and provide link to 802.11ad physical layer, Read More.


GPRS tutorial-This GPRS tutorial covers GPRS basics,network architecture,ip addressing,handset classes,coding schemes,channel types,GPRS QoS and standard reference. Read more

GPS tutorial-This tutorial covers GPS System basics,GPS applications and provide link to GPS system component/module manufacturers. Read more


TD-SCDMA tutorial-This tutorial covers TD-SCDMA basics including frame structure and provides comparison with WCDMA counterpart. Read more


LTE tutorial- This tutorial on LTE covers LTE system overview, LTE air interface,LTE SAE and provide link for LTE Frame structure, LTE physical layer,LTE protocol stack,LTE terminologies,LTE advanced,LTE vendors etc. Read more


Femtocell tutorial- This tutorial covers femtocell basics including network architecture, handover, security, interference, femtocell testing and femtocell manufacturers. Read more


UMTS tutorial-This UMTS tutorial covers UMTS Releases,UMTS frequency bands,UARFCN,UMTS multiple access,UMTS frame structure and UMTS network architecture. Read more

HSPA tutorial-This HSPA tutorial covers HSPA Overview,HSDPA,HSUPA,features of HSPA,HSPA channels and HSPA+. Read more


UWB tutorial-This Ultra Wideband tutorial covers UWB basics including UWB working, benefits, specifications and UWB applications.
Read more.


IoT tutorial-This covers basics,IoT entities,applications,protocols,cellular IoT,IoT sensors,IoT components,IoT device requirements etc.
Read more.


BACnet tutorial-This tutorial page covers BACnet protocol stack basics.The BACnet protocol layers include physical layer,link layer,network layer,application layer and BACnet security layer.
Read more.


Underwater wireless communication and networks tutorial covers basics system elements, links, frequency range and underwater acoustic communication protocol stack.
Read more.


Vehicular Wireless Communication tutorial covers V2V and V2i based communication concepts along with architecture of this system.
Read more.


Low range Wireless electricity transmission tutorial covers basic concepts of electromagnetic and resonance magnetic coupling methods used in wireless electricity transmission.
Read more.


5G tutorial covers need for 5G wireless, 5G technology features, advantages of 5G and key 5G projects.
Read more.


LiFi tutorial covers LiFi network architecture, LiFi protocol stack, LiFi PHY, LiFi MAC, LiFi bands, LiFi modulation types (OOK, VPPM, CSK). It also provide link to difference between LiFi and WiFi.
Read more.


LoRa Wireless tutorial covers LoRa RF bands, LoRa PHY layer, LoRa MAC frame structure, LoRa Protocol layers, LoRa device classes etc.
Read more.


Wireless NFC tutorial covers Near Field Communication features, NFC network modes, NFC device types(tag,reader), how NFC network works etc. It covers NFC protocol stack, NFC frame, NFC testing tools and equipments etc.
Read more.


Infrared tutorial covers Infrared features, IR network operation, IR spectrum, Infrared applications, Infrared advantages and disadvantages.
Read more.


LMDS and MMDS tutorial-covers LMDS architecture and MMDS architecture. It mentions LMDS advantages and disadvantages. It mentions MMDS advantages and disadvantages. It mentions link to comparison between LMDS and MMDS.
Read more.


RF Tutorials

satellite Tutorial-This satellite tutorial covers satellite function,frquency bands,network,parts,orbits,services,types,capacity allocation,network configurations,applications. Read more

This antenna tutorial covers basic functions of antenna, field regions around antenna,antenna types and terms related to antenna. Antenna is a device used to transmit and receive electromagnetic waves. The electro-magnetic waves carry information such as voice, data, video, image etc. Read more


RF Measurements tutorial-This rf measurements tutorial covers gain,spurious,harmonics,1dB compression point,noise figure,image rejection,return loss,phase noise,group delay,frequency stability,TOI,AM to PM conversion and more RF device measurements. Read more


RF Mixer tutorial-This rf mixer tutorial covers basics, types, operation and manufacturers of RF mixer.
Read more


Waveguide Tutorial-This waveguide tutorial covers waveguide basics,waveguide types rectangular and circular,waveguide propagation modes,waveguide impedance matching devices and reference to waveguide dimension table. Read more


VSAT tutorial- This VSAT tutorial covers VSAT system overview,VSAT subsystems,VSAT RF link budget,VSAT terminology and VSAT vendors. Read more


VSAT NMS tutorial- This NMS tutorial covers NMS(Network Management System) basics for star configuration VSAT including NMS protocol used for local and remote NMS. VSAT NMS is used mainly for monitoring and control of hub station systems and also remote subsystems. It includes modem,RF upconverter,RF downconverter,power amplifier,LNA,switch over units and more. Read more


Test and Measurement tutorial- This tutorial on test and measurement covers test and measurement overview, test and measurement of wireless products,test and measurement parameters, test and measurement companies and equipments. Read more


RFID tutorial- This tutorial covers RFID basics including RFID terminologies, what is RFID? , RFID network, factors in determining RFID network, RFID cost, RFID applications,RFID vendors/manufacturers and more.
Read more


Radar tutorial-This radar tutorial covers radar communication system basics, types of radar and radar applications. Radar types include pulsed radar,CW radar and phased array radar.
Read more


Software Programming Language Tutorials

C language tutorial- This C programming language tutorial covers variable data types, control flow statements,arithmetic,logical and relational operators,function,array,pointer,structure,union,typedef,enum and more.
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C++ language tutorial- This C++ programming language tutorial covers C++ object oriented language features over C and provide quick guide to C++ programming language concepts. It includes class,object,constructor,destructor,public,private,protected, inheritance,friend class/function,Operator overloading and more concepts of a c++ language.
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VHDL Tutorial- This VHDL language tutorial covers VHDL concepts which include entity,architecture, process,ports of mode,object types,VHDL data types,operators and example VHDL implementation.
Read more


MATLAB Programming Tutorial - This MATLAB programming language tutorial basics of matlab, how to start and quit matlab,flow control,matrices,arrays,arithmetic operators,matrix operations,load function,save function,plotting functions,script and functions in matlab and sample matlab program.
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Simulink Tutorial - This simulink tutorial covers simulink basics,quick guide to use simulink,data types,simulink concepts,signal processing example and wimax simulation using simulink.
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Labview Programming basics Tutorial - This Labview programming language tutorial covers Labview basics, data type supported in labview and example implementation using labview programming.
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Misc. Tutorials


This tutorial on DSP describes changes to typical DSP architecture in memory,bus and hardware etc. required for complex DSP algorithm porting.
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This tutorial describes speech coding basics and covers various speech codec techniques such as PCM, ADPCM, CELP employed in today's wireless networks such as GSM, CDMA and more. Read more


Microcontroller tutorial- This microcontroller tutorial covers microcontroller overview, microcontroller hardware,microcontroller programming and microcontroller kit vendors. Read more


Project Management tutorial- This Project Management tutorial covers Project basics,Project management knowledge areas,PMP,PMP formulas, Passing PMP Exam and Agile scrum methodology. Read more


Software Testing tutorial- This Software Testing Tutorial covers Software testing basics,testing objectives,testing types,testing methods, testing methodologies,unit testing,integration testing,system testing, acceptance testing and testing artifacts for documentation. Read more


ARM tutorial- This ARM tutorial covers ARM,RISC basics,difference between ARM and RISC, ARM bus technology,memory,peripherals,ARM core,core extensions,co-processor and ARM processor types, ARM register set,processor models,pipeline concept,ARM exception,interrupt controller, ARM cache basics and ARM architecture.Read more.


SS7 tutorial- This SS7 Tutorial covers Signalling System no.7 basics, SS7 terminology,SS7 network,SS7 protocol stack,SS7 frame structure and SS7 signal units. Read more


Telephone system tutorial- This telephone system tutorial covers basic telephone system,block diagram of a basic telephone, telephone ringing sequence and more.It describes BORSCHT,useful functions of SLIC.
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Diode tutorial-This tutorial covers types of diode including junction diode, point contact diode, zener diode, varicap(varactor) diode, gunn diode etc. The identification codes of diode are also covered.
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Floating Point Tutorial -This tutorial covers IEEE 754 Standard Floating Point Numbers,floating point conversions,Decimal to IEEE 754 standard floating point, floating point standard to Decimal point conversion,floating point Arithmetic,IEEE 754 standard Floating point multiplication Algorithm ,floating point Addition Algorithm with example,floating point Division Algorithm with example and more.
Read more


Networking tutorial- This tutorial covers everything one like to know about networking basics including circuit switching vs packet switching, TCP/IP protocol fields, ARP/RARP protocol fields, what is IP address ,what is MAC address, networking devices which include hub, switch, bridge, router, gateway and firewall.
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Ethernet tutorial- This tutorial covers basics of Ethernet standards, frames(DIX,802.3), CSMA/CD protocol, topologies, Ethernet test and more. It covers Ethernet testing protocols ARP, RARP and Ping.
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Cloud Computing Tutorial- This tutorial covers basics,architecture and different cloud models such as public,private,hybrid,community etc. It explains IaaS, PaaS and SaaS service models used in cloud computing.
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Cloud Storage Tutorial- This tutorial on cloud storage covers cloud storage definition, how does it work, \ cloud infrastructure, difference between Private cloud Vs public cloud Vs hybrid cloud, cloud storage providers, traditional vs cloud storage and more.
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Fiber Optic Communication tutorial- This Fiber Optic Communication tutorial covers basics and benefits of fiber optic system, fiber optic cables/connectors,optical transmitter and optical receiver.
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This DWDM system basics tutorial covers optic fibre, WDM MUX, WDM DEMUX, optical amplifier(EDFA), regenerator, DWDM transmitter, DWDM receiver, optical add/drop multiplexer, optical circulator and optical isolator.
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This page on television basics tutorial covers TV Signal spectrum depicting both audio and video signals. It also provides link to TV channel frequencies, cable TV basics, satellite TV basics, digital television basics, cable TV channel frequencies, DTV standards, VSB modulation, difference between DVB-T, DVB-C, DVB-S and DVB-H systems etc.
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This TETRA Radio System tutorial covers Trunk radio communication system or trunking radio basics. It mentions TETRA interfaces, TETRA radio frequency bands, TETRA frame structure and TETRA standard references.
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FTTH Tutorial covers basics of FTTH(fibre to the home) configurations and architectures viz. Active Optical Network(AON) and Passive Optical Network(PON).It covers PON standards EPON and GPON etc.
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Mobile IP Tutorial covers operation,terminology and mobile IP protocol basics.
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WAP Tutorial covers Wireless Application Protocol,WAP programming model and WAP infrastructure.
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Network Security Tutorial covers need of security, types of security, attack sources, network attack types, layered security and mitigation methods, network security agorithms etc.
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Telecom Billing Tutorial covers telecom billing basics, billing types(postpaid, prepaid), telecom billing system architecture, billing system vendors or developers.
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MPLS Tutorial covers MPLS basics, MPLS network architecture, MPLS label format, MPLS providers etc.
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Conformance testing

Following links specify transmitter and receiver tests as part of conformance specifications for GSM,WCDMA,LTE and TD-SCDMA compliant mobile/UE.

GSM conformance    LTE conformance   WCDMA conformance   TD-SCDMA conformance   WiMAX conformance   LTE eNodeB RF conformance   LTE UE RF conformance   WLAN 11n 11ac RF PHY conformance   11ad conformance  


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