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RF Wireless World Articles section

This section covers RF, Wireless, telecom, networking articles. It includes technologies such as wimax, wlan, lte, zigbee, GSM, M2M, wirelessHART as per IEEE/3GPP standards. It covers various layers as per OSI protocol stack viz. layer-1(physical layer),Layer-2(MAC layer) and upper layers(layer-3 and above) for wireless standards.

Fading Basics and Types of fading in wireless communication

5G cell phone architecture

This page describes Fading basics and types of fading in wireless communication. The Fading types are divided into large scale fading and small scale fading (multipath delay spread and doppler spread). Flat fading and frequency selecting fading are part of multipath fading where as fast fading and slow fading are part of doppler spread fading.These fading types are implemented as per Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami and Weibull distributions or models.
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5G Cell Phone Architecture

This article on 5G Cell Phone architecture covers 5G Cell Phone Block diagram with internal modules of 5G Cellular phone architecture.
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5G NR Physical layer processing for PDSCH and PUSCH

his article describes 5G NR physical layer. The physical layer processing for 5G NR PDSCH channel and 5G NR PUSCH channel have been covered stepwise. This 5G physical layer description is as per 3GPP physical layer specifications.
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Repeater basics and repeater types

5G cell phone architecture

This page describes repeater basics and repeater types. It explains functions of WiFi repeater, Microwave repeater, Satellite repeater, LTE repeater and Optical repeater. It mentions difference between repeater and amplifier. It mentions advantages and disadvantages of repeater.
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Interference Basics and Interference types

5G cell phone architecture

This page describes Interference basics and Interference types. The common types of interference include adjacent channel Interference, co-channel Interference, Electromagnetic Interference, ICI (Inter Carrier Interference), ISI (Inter Symbol Interference), light Interference, Sound Interference etc.
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Basics of OSI and TCPIP Layers

This article outlines OSI layers and TCPIP basics required for RF and Wireless Engineers. The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. TCPIP is used for internet applications mainly. The figure describes how TCPIP layers map to OSI layers.
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Design of RF Frequency Up converter

This paper demonstrates step by step approach to designing the Up converter or down converter module of any RF Frequency converter. We will take example of designing the Up-converter module which translates IF frequency in the range of about 70MHz to RF frequency of about 6GHz. This RF frequency converter is used in satellite applications.
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Overview of 802.11a Physical layer

This article describes WLAN frame structure, symbol structure and Physical layer as defined in IEEE 802.11a-1999 standard. 802.11a operates at 2.4GHz RF frequency and supports data rate up to 54Mbps. There are other popular standards in the 802.11 family 802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11n. 802.11b operates at 2.4GHz and supports data rate up to 11 Mbps, where in DSSS and CCK modulation schemes are employed. 802.11g operates at 5GHz and supports both 11a and 11b standards.
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WiMAX MAC layer protocol inside as per IEEE 802.16-2004 standard

This article describes IEEE 802.16-2004 wimax MAC layer protocols, its functions mainly for schedule management and resource allocation. This article also helps in the design of PHY layer as MAC layer plays very important role to determine modulation-code rate and other useful PHY parameters.
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WLAN MAC layer protocol inside as per IEEE 802.11 standard

This article describes IEEE 802.11 WLAN MAC layer protocols, including MAC frame fields in detail.
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Basics of LTE system

This article describes LTE system frame structure, physical layers,protocol stack ,terminology for eNodeB amd UE.
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VSAT System Overview

VSAT System Article

This article describes basics of satellite communication, VSAT subsystems-Outdoor and Indoor, their functions and typical installation procedure for VSAT with frequency assignment. It also mentions specifications of VSAT system.
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Satellite Ground Station Basics

This article basics of satellite ground station or earth station with block diagram,
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WiMAX Physical layer In-depth analysis

This paper covers wimax frame and symbol structure and describes Physical layer modules and functions of each in brief as per IEEE 802.16-2004 OFDM Physical layer specifications. The highlight of this article is intuitive analysis of data flow between each modules of Physical layer.
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Wireless System overview

This article is basic overview of Wireless system and it's subsystem viz. Baseband, RF and A-D/D-A converters and their functions.It provides wireless network speeds for various technologies viz. WLAN,WiMAX,Zigbee,Bluetooth, GSM,CDMA,LTE,LTE-Advanced etc.
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Introduction of WLAN-11n Physical layer

This article covers WLAN 11n history, various frame structure w.r.t. various modes(legacy,mixed mode and green field mode), physical layer block schematic and their functions.
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Brief on Remote Radio Head

This article covers brief on remote radio head protocol stack,interfaces and its applications.
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What is Router

This article describes about function of router with example of interworking between ATM based server and LAN based work station.
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Difference between Single carrier and OFDM

This article describes difference between single carrier system and multi carrier system(OFDM). It also depicts block schematic for the same.
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This article describes difference between OFDM and OFDMA systems.It explains the same with respect to frame structure of fixed wimax and mobile wimax systems where these concepts have been applied.
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Types of OFDMA

This article covers OFDMA types localized and distributed.
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This article covers WLAN-ac technology features and provides and provides references and web links for further study of the same.
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This article describes physical layer and data link layer of wirelessHART and also provides useful references for further study.
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LTE Advanced

This article provides technology features of LTE advanced and also provides useful references for further study if someone wants to explore the system in depth.
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M2M technology

This article provides description, applications of M2M technology. It also provides references for further study of the technology.
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802.16m technology

This article provides features of 802.16m technology and covers introduction of the same.
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FPGA implementation of MIMO

This papers covers various multiple antenna transmit and receive systems and covers implementation of MIMO system using verilog targetted for FPGA porting. It also provides results obtained during simulation of the same.
FPGA_Implementation_of_MIMO PDF➤

Difference between 802.11a,11b,11g and 11n

This page provides basic differences of 802.11a, 11b , 11g and 11n systems,
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Difference between 11n,11ac and 11ad technologies

This page provides basic differences of 802.11n, 11ac and 11ad systems,
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OFDM Physical layer measurements

This page covers all the useful measurements for PHY layer analysis for OFDM systems viz. wimax,wlan. It covers power spectrum,EVM,CCDF,spectral flatness channel frequency response, constellation and more. Equations are derived from IEEE 802.16-2004 standard.
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802.11b Physical layer

This article describes 802.11 network architecture before proceeding to unleash 802.11b Physical layer. It also briefly mention MAC layer of 802.11 standard.This WLAN standard along with 11a/g/n are mainly used for data communication and incorporated today in each and every wireless devices e.g.laptop, tablet, mobile phones to provide data communication and also to increase the range within the house or building.
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IEEE 802 standards

This article describes 802 families of standards for local and metropolitan area networks. This family of standards deals with the Physical and Data Link Layers as defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model (ISO/IEC 7498-1:1994). The access standards define several types of medium access technologies and associated physical media, each appropriate for particular applications or system objectives. Other types are under investigation. The relationship between the standard and other members of the family is shown below. It provides links for reader to go through the same in depth.
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802.11 standards

This article describes about IEEE 802.11 history, description and various protocols. IEEE 802.11 is a set of standards for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN). This is used for data communication between computers using wireless medium. It operates at various RF frequency bands viz. 2.4, 3.6 and 5 GHz.
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802.16 standards

IEEE 802.16 is a series of Wireless Broadband standards for broadband for Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks-WMAN developed and published by the IEEE. It has been commercialized under the name WiMAX by the WiMAX Forum industry alliance. WiMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. WiMAX Forum promotes and certifies compatibility and interoperability of products based on the IEEE 802.16 standards.
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OFDMA Physical layer

This article describes on OFDMA basics, OFDMA frame structure and OFDMA Physical layer. It explains each modules of OFDMA Physical layer as per IEEE 802.16e-2005 Standard. It covers example of 1024 FFT for Downlink chain which is used by Base Station to send information to Mobile subscribers.
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Peak to Average Power Ratio-PAPR

This article describes about Peak to Average Power Ratio(PAPR), its importance in wireless system and PAPR reduction techniques.
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FPGA architecture

This article describes FPGA architecture.
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Asynchronous FIFO Design with verilog test bench

This article describes Asynchronous FIFO design with verilog test bench simulation. It covers FIFO memory,binary and gray counter.
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RF Filter Design

This article covers steps to design RF Filter or microwave filter. It covers richards transformation, kudora''s identity to achieve microstrip equivalent filter circuit.
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Signal generation and analysis

This article describes RF signal generation and analysis useful for testing wireless device compliant to IEEE or 3GPP standards viz. WLAN,WiMAX,LTE etc.
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PXI system for RF and wireless test and measurement

This article describes PXI system basics,its application with respect to RF and wireless test and measurement targeted for testing Wireless devices as per WLAN, WiMAX, Zigbee, GSM,LTE and other IEEE/3GPP standards,
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Wireless Test and Measurement Solutions from Agilent,Anritsu and Rohde and Schwarz

Following articles cover wireless test and measurement equipments/solutions for testing wireless devices as per current and emerging wireless technologies/standards.
Agilent wireless test and measurement solutions➤
Anritsu wireless test and measurement solutions➤
Rohde Schwarz wireless test and measurement solutions➤

Zigbee Compliance and Manufacturing Tests

This article covers zigbee device compliance and manufacturing tests and test set up typically followed by the test and certification or pre-certification companies,
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Difference between FDM and OFDM

This article describes difference between FDM and OFDM techniques.
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Difference between SC-FDMA and OFDM

This article describes difference between SC-FDMA and OFDM techniques.
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Difference between SISO and MIMO

This article describes difference between SISO and MIMO terminologies.
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Difference between TDD and FDD

This article describes difference between TDD and FDD topologies.
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Design of L band Satellite Modem

This page describes design of satellite modem which describes satellite modem block diagram and design tips with L band example.
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Convolution Encoder Implementation

This page describes convolution encoder with example and mention pseudo code of convolutional encoding.
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C band RF Transceiver design and development

This page describes RF Transceiver design and development with example specifications of C band RF Transceiver. It also mention useful links to manufacturers and basics of rf transceiver.
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Test procedures-How to test RF LNA, SSPA, RF Transceiver

Following links cover articles on test procedures which describes how to test RF LNA, SSPA and transceiver. As part of test procedure it covers various RF measurements required to test these systems.
RF LNA Test Procedure, how to test LNA➤
RF SSPA Test Procedure, how to test SSPA➤
RF Transceiver Test Procedure, how to test transceiver➤

Selection Guide to Wireless Router and How to setup linksys router

This page describes how to setup wireless router and mention selection guide for wireless router,
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Mifi internet, mifi-2200 router and How to setup mifi router

This page describes how to setup mifi router 2200.This device acts as portable wifi hotspot to provide mifi internet services,
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10, 40, 100 Gigabit Ethernet Physical Layer-10Gbps Ethernet PHY

This page describes 10 Gigabit Ethernet Physical layer (10Gbps Ethernet PHY). The article takes example of 10GBASE-R physical layer transmitter and receiver to explain the 10 Gigabit ethernet PHY layer. Read More➤
Also refer 40 Gigabit Ethernet Physical Layer➤
Also refer 100 Gigabit Ethernet Physical Layer➤


How to interface PHY,MAC and RF layers

This article covers how to interface PHY,MAC and RF layers. This interface guide is very useful for connecting physical layer (i.e. layer-1) and MAC layer(i.e. layer-2) as required in WLAN, WiMAX, LTE and so on.
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GSM Protocol Stack

This article covers GSM protocol stack for Mobile Station(MS),Base Transceiver Station(BTS),Base Station Controller(BSC) and Mobile Services Switching Center(MSC) network elements. Protocol stack include layer 1(radio-FDMA/TDMA,64kbps digital link),layer 2(LAPD,LAPDm) and layer 3(RRM,MM,CM,SCCP,BSSMAP,BTSM) functionalities. Read More-PART1➤
Read More-PART2➤

GSM Physical Layer

This article on GSM physical layer covers GSM layer 1 modules which include forward error correction,interleaving,ciphering,burst building,multiplexing, differential encoding,GMSK modulation,GSM RF transmitter as per 3GPP released technical specifications, READ MORE➤. For traffic channel,control channel and packet switched channel processing through physical layer as per 3GPP standard follow links below.
GSM Traffic Channel processing through physical layer➤
GSM Control Channel processing through physical layer➤
GSM Packet Switched Channel processing through physical layer➤

TD-SCDMA Physical Layer

This article on TD-SCDMA physical layer covers as per 3GPP UTRA Physical Layer specifications. It describes Transmitter modules of the physical layer.

Circuit switched Mobile Originated(MO) call in GSM

This article describes Mobile originated (MO) call as per GSM standard in circuit switched mode. It covers message sequences for call establishment and call release(mobile originated).

Circuit switched Mobile Terminated(MT) call in GSM

This article describes Mobile terminated (MT) call as per GSM standard in circuit switched mode. It covers message sequences for call establishment and call release(mobile terminated).

Packet switched data call downlink in GSM

This article describes downlink data call as per GSM standard in packet switched mode. It covers GPRS attach and PDP context activation procedures.

Packet switched data call uplink in GSM

This article describes uplink data call as per GSM standard in packet switched mode. It covers GPRS attach and PDP context activation procedures.

Circuit switched Mobile Originated(MO) and Mobile Terminated(MT) voice call in WCDMA

This article describes Mobile originated (MO) and Mobile Terminated(MT) voice call as per WCDMA standard in circuit switched mode. It covers message sequences for call establishment and call release.

Packet switched data call in WCDMA

This article describes data call as per WCDMA standard in packet switched mode. It covers layer 3 messages including PDP context activation/deactivation.

wimax protocol stack

This article covers WiMAX protocol stack which describes Wimax physical layer,wimax MAC layer and upper layers. Wimax MAC layer include MAC privacy sub layer,MAC common part sub layer and MAC convergence sub layer.


wimax network architecture

This article covers WiMAX network architecture which describes various wimax network elements such as SS/MS,BS,ASN gateway and CSN router. Also mention various interfaces between these entities.

Agile Scrum Methodology

This article covers agile scrum methodology,scrum basics,agile scrum life cycle,scrum team,scrum artifacts,scrum ceremonies and compares agile SDLC with waterfall SDLC.


Project management professional-PMP

This article covers project management professional(PMP) basics for project managers and provide link to PMP formulas and how to pass PMP exam.


How to pass PMP Exam on first Attempt

This article covers This article provides guide to pass PMP exam on first attempt including eligibility criteria to apply for PMP Exam.


GPRS protocol stack

This article covers GPRS protocol stack for Mobile Station(MS).Protocol stack include layer 1(Physical layer),layer 2(LLC,RLC,MAC) and layer 3(SM,GMM,SNDCP) functionalities.

GSM Mobile Phone Basics

This article on GSM Mobile Phone basics include both hardware and software components/modules of GSM mobile phone.

Microstrip line basics and types of microstrip line

This article describes microstrip line basics and mention types of microstrip lines and their advantages.

Microwave Transmission line basics and types of transmission line

This article describes microwave transmission line basics and mention types of transmission lines and their advantages.

Coaxial line basics and types of coaxial line

This article describes microwave coaxial line basics and mention types of coaxial lines. It also mention characteristic impedance of coaxial line.

Slotline basics and slotline types

This article describes Slotline basics and mention Slotline types viz. antipodal slotline and bilateral slotline.

Stripline basics and stripline types

This article describes Stripline basics and mention Stripline types viz. double conductor stripline, offset stripline and suspended stripline. Stripline Directional coupler technical specifications are listed.

Microstrip line basics and its variants

This article describes microstrip line variants viz. inverted microstrip line, suspended microstrip line, shielded microstrip line. Advantages and disadvantages are also covered here.

Antenna diversity basics and diversity types

This page describes antenna diversity basics and mentions various types of diversity techniques which include space diversity,frequency diversity,time diversity, polarization diversity,pattern diversity,directional diversity and Transmit-Receive diversity.

IoT-Internet of Things, Boon or curse for the mankind

In this article we will describe what is IoT, how does it work, IoT stack,IoT applications and we will discuss whether IoT is boon or curse for the mankind.

Automatic Protection Switching(APS) in SDH/SONET

In this article we will describe Automatic protection switching in SDH/SONET ring based networks.K1 and K2 bytes of SDH frame used for this type of protection in also explained in detail.

Oscilloscope basics,types and manufacturers-A buyer guide

This article of test and measurement category covers low cost oscilloscope basics,types and oscilloscope manufacturers/vendors useful for buyer.

SDN-Software Defined Networking

In this article we will describe SDN(Software Defined Networking) definition,major enablers of SDN,SDN architecture,benefits of SDN, SDN standards and more.

web application security testing tools

This article covers security testing tools basics, types and web application security testing. It also provides basics of Wapiti,OWASP ZAP and Netsparker security tools.

Electromagnetic compatible system design and requirement

This article covers Electromagnetic compatible system (EMC) requirement and mention design aspects of electromagnetic compatible system.

EM radiation basics and EM radiation mitigation techniques

This article covers Electromagnetic (EM) radiation basics and mention EM (Electromagnetic) radiation mitigation (reduction) techniques used in mobile cellular system.

Smart lighting system basics and Zigbee Smart LED bulb and Hub

This page describes zigbee based smart lighting system, Zigbee smart LED bulb and Hub manufacturers.

Data loggers for data logging

The data logger is the system used for data logging.The page covers types of data loggers and basic functions of data logging.

NFC-Near Field Communication Basics

This page describes NFC (Near Field Communication) basics including NFC operation modes, NFC frequency, NFC data rates, NFC tag types, NFC applications and NFC signalling types.

ESD basics | Electrostatic Discharge Basics | ESD tester

This page covers ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) Basics, ESD classes, sources of ESD, protection mechanism and devices and Electrostatic Discharge(ESD) tester.

RF Energy Harvesting System Basics

This article covers RF energy harvesting system basics.This radio frequency harvesting is useful to charge the battery. It covers RF energy harvesting system block diagram with components.

AWG-Arbitrary Waveform Generator

This article describes AWG (Arbitrary Waveform Generator) basics, AWG types (namely traditional AWG,DDS based AWG) and comparison of AWG with conventional waveform generators.

SDR-Software Defined Radio

This article on SDR(Software Defined Radio) covers SDR transmitter basics, SDR architecture, difference between analog receiver and SDR receiver, benefits and more.

Impedance Matching

This page covers impedance matching circuits and devices. Impedance matching circuits are L network, pi network, transmatch circuit etc. Impedance matching devices include coaxial cable balun transformer, matching stubs, quarter wavelength transformer, series matching section etc.

Radio Broadcasting

This article covers radio broadcasting system basics with FM Radio Frequency Channels. It also explains mobile FM radio broadcasting transmitter and receiver.

RF Site Survey

This article describes RF site survey basics, RF survey types and RF survey tools used for pre-installation verification of GSM, LTE, CDMA, UMTS networks.

Sensors and Transducers

This article on Sensors and Transducers covers types, basic functions and provide links to sensors and transducers. It include temperature sensor, humidity sensor, strain sensor, proximity or occupancy sensor, force or load sensor, voltage and current sensor, pressure sensor, speed sensor, resistance sensor, power sensor, level sensor, event or state sensor etc. READ MORE➤.
Refer following links for various sensors:
Proximity Sensor    Occupancy Sensor vs Motion Sensor    LVDT and RVDT sensor    Position, displacement and level sensor    force sensor and strain sensor    temperature sensor    pressure sensor    Humidity sensor    IoT sensors    LoRaWAN Sensor design   Motion Sensor   Biosensor   Medical sensor   Nuclear sensor   Vehicle sensor   Rotary sensor   Deep sea sensor   Tilt sensor   Vibration sensor   Security sensor   Fiber optic sensor

Links to other Articles

AWG Generator Basics and Types➤   Solar cell as Renewable Energy Source➤   RF Capture Technology➤   Load Balancing basics➤   Energy vs Power Management➤   Smoke Detector basics and types➤   Heat Detector basics and types➤   Antenna Reflector basics and types➤   Horn antenna basics and types➤   Slot Antenna basics➤   Lens Antenna basics and types➤   High Power Microwave Weapon System➤   Laser Weapon vs Microwave Weapon➤   IRNSS GPS in INDIA➤   Energy Harvesting Techniques➤   VCO basics and types➤   PLL basics➤   Touch Screen Technology➤   E-Waste Management➤   Zigbee Smart Lighting Architecture➤   Zigbee Smart Parking Architecture➤   LoRaWAN Smart Parking➤   Smart healthcare system➤   Cell Phone radiation➤   Satellite IoT architecture➤   Wavemeter basics and types➤   Noise reduction techniques➤   Power supply noise reduction techniques➤   Resonant circuits basics and types➤   Microstrip resonators basics and types➤   Microstrip filter structures➤   Smart Grid Architecture➤   mmwave up converter and down converter design➤   Surge protection devices➤   Magnetometer basics and types➤   Photodiode basics and types➤   Phototransistor basics and types➤   Laser basics and types➤   Diode basics and types➤   Transistor basics and types➤   Balun basics and types➤   Actuator basics and types➤   Bluetooth Physical Layer➤  

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